Cells that work together to Rid the Body of Infection

Cells that work together to Rid the Body of Infection

Diet Health ad Immunity -MQ                                          “We all know that what we Eat 
                 Significantly affects our overall Health and Immunity,”
 “While there are other important regulators of immune system function,
                                     The role Vitamins play is significant.                                                        
             How this works on a molecular level is a growing field of study.”
                                                       Myung H. Kim

(Excerpt from: “Study finds Vitamin A directs immune cells to the intestines”)    

In earlier work Kim found that vitamin A also regulates the migration of T-cells.
This is not the only vitamin known to regulate the migration of immune cells.
Vitamin D has been shown to work in a similar way to guide immune cells
to the skin, Kim said. Within the immune system there are
Two Categories of Cells that work together to Rid the Body of Infection:
1- Innate immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells and
2- Leukocytes that are fast acting and immediately present to eliminate infection;
3- and adaptive immune cells, the T-cells and B-cells that arrive later,
     but are specific to the pathogen and more effective at killing or neutralizing it.
All innate immune cells are produced in the bone marrow,
but eventually populate other areas of the body.
Innate lymphoid cells, which include the group studied by Kim,
are present in barrier tissues.
While it is known that innate lymphoid cells are concentrated in the intestines,
it has not been known how these cells find their way there, Kim said.
Innate lymphoid cells first gather in the lymph nodes before traveling
to their final destination, and this is where retinoic acid (in vitamin A)
acts upon two of the three subsets destined for the intestines.
Kim and his team found that retinoic acid activates specific receptors
in the cells that act as homing devices for the intestines.
As the innate immune cells then travel through the circulatory system,
the receptors grab onto and bind to molecules in the intestines
and keep the cells in place, he said.
“It is important that these cells be concentrated in mucosal barrier tissues,
as opposed to scattered throughout the body, because these tissues are
the point of entry for many infections from bacteria, viruses and parasites,”
Kim said. “Now that we have established the system of migration
for these cells, we can play with it a little and see what changes
the behaviour and function of the cells.”                                              

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Health-Diet Immunity 1-MQ

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Intestinal Bacteria – Friends and Foes

Intestinal Bacteria FF -MQ (HTML)

After a Decade Long Treatment of Antibiotics 
and Consequences(+) i have been suffering during and since
i need no more convincing about the Truth
of the Antibiotic Research findings (below).
(+)Malassezia one of the most persistent, and annoying
and this  …after managing to eventually downgrade it
from its initial torturous levels of proliferation and destruction.)

(Presentation in Flash Cards and in Text for those using ‘Translate’ Function) 

Intestinal Microbiota                            

Microbiota 1CO- MQ

———————    text     ♣     version       ———————

Human beings have clusters of bacteria in different parts of the body, such as in the surface or deep layers of skin (skin microbiota),
the mouth (oral microbiota), the vagina (vaginal microbiota), and so on….
Gut microbiota (formerly called gut flora) is the name given today to the microbe population living in our intestine.
It contains tens of trillions of microorganisms,
including at least 1000 different species of known bacteria
with more than 3 million genes (150 times more than human genes).
Microbiota can, in total, weigh up to 2 kg.
One third of our gut microbiota is common to most people,
while two thirds are specific to each one of us. In other words,
microbiota in your intestine is like an individual identity card./strong>
-Re-Blogged- http://www.gutmicrobiotawatch.org/gut-microbiota-info/

 ———————               ♣                    ———————

              Why is Microbiota Important?     

Microbiota 2CO- MQ

———————    text     ♣     version       ———————

WHY is it important?
While each of us has a unique Microbiota,
it always fulfils the same physiological functions
and they have a direct impact on our health:

– It helps the body to digest certain foods that the stomach
and small intestines have not been able to digest.
– It helps with the production of some vitamins (B and K).
It helps us combat aggressions from other microorganisms,
maintaining the wholeness of the intestinal mucosa.
It plays an important role in the immune system,
performing a barrier effect.
– A healthy and balanced gut microbiota
is key to ensuring proper digestive functioning.
Re-Blogged- http://www.gutmicrobiotawatch.org/gut-microbiota-info/

 ———————               ♣                    ———————

Unwanted impact of Antibiotics

Microbiota 3CO- MQ

———————    text     ♣     version       ———————

           Unwanted impact of Antibiotics
Broader, more Complex than previously known 

40 percent of all adults and 70 percent of all children
take one or more Antibiotics every year
They also kill intestinal epithelium.
Destruction of the intestinal epithelium is important
because this is the site of nutrient absorption
antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant microbes
caused significant changes in mitochondrial function
…………………..
…………………..
Healthy microbiota may also be another way to address
growing problems with antibiotic resistance, Morgun said.
Instead of trying to kill the “bad” bacteria causing an illness,
a healthy and functioning microbiota may be able
to outcompete the unwanted microbes and improve immune function.
Re-Blogged http://clinicalnews.org/2015/02/11/unwanted-impact-of-antibiotics-broader-more-complex-than-previously-known/

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* * *

 Infant Antibiotic use Linked to Adult Diseases

“Previous studies showed links between antibiotic use
and unbalanced gut bacteria, and others showed links
between unbalanced gut bacteria and adult disease.
Over the past year we synthesized hundreds of studies and found
evidence of strong correlations between antibiotic use
changes in gut bacteria, and disease in adulthood.”
Knights and his colleagues developed a framework
to map how antibiotics may be acting in the gut
to cause disease later in life.
In the case of allergies, for example, the use of antibiotics
may eradicate key gut bacteria that help immune cells mature.
These cells would have been essential for keeping
the immune system at bay when confronted with allergens.
Even if these bacteria return, the immune system remains impaired.
Related to obesity, antibiotic-induced changes
in the gut microbiota resulted in increased levels
of short-chain fatty acids that affect metabolism.
Re-Blogged: http://clinicalnews.org/2015/05/14/infant-antibiotic-use-linked-to-adult-diseases/       

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Intestinal Bacteria

Intestinal Bacteria - MQ

 Excerpts Re-Blogged From  > 1 in 4 has alarmingly few intestinal bacteria 

Intestinal Health MQ

           1 in 4 has alarmingly few intestinal bacteria 

INTESTINAL BACTERIA 1-MQ
INTESTINAL BACTERIA 2-MQ

( Text Version for those using Translation) 

All people have trillions of bacteria living in their intestines. If you place them on a scale, they weigh around 1.5 kg. Previously, a major part of these ‘blind passengers’ were unknown, as they are difficult or impossible to grow in laboratories. But over the past five years, an EU-funded research team, MetaHIT, coordinated by Professor S. Dusko Ehrlich at the INRA Research Centre of Jouy-en-Josas, France and with experts from Europe and China have used advanced DNA analysis and bioinformatics methods to map human intestinal bacteria.

The gut is like a rainforest

Oluf Pedersen compares the human gut and its bacteria with a tropical rainforest. He explains that we need as much diversity as possible, and – as is the case with the natural tropical rainforests – decreasing diversity is a cause for concern. It appears that the richer and more diverse the composition of our intestinal bacteria, the stronger our health. The bacteria produce vital vitamins, mature and strengthen our immune system and communicate with the many nerve cells and hormone-producing cells in the intestinal system. And, not least, the bacteria produce a wealth of bioactive substances which penetrate into the bloodstream and affect our biology in countless ways.

To Read Complete Entry  > 1 in 4 has alarmingly few intestinal bacteria 

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